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September 7, 1962     Catholic Northwest Progress
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September 7, 1962

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4---THE PROGRESS Friday, Sepf. 7 1962 i Vote On Tuesday uesday, September 11 is State Primary election day. Many feel that be- cause these are only the primaries their votes are relatively unimportant. Nothing could be further from the fact. Did you ever stop to think that by failure to cast your ballot in the primary you may liter- ally throw away your vote in the State General Election on November 7. If the candidate of your choice does not make it in the primary, you may have to refrain from voting for that par- ticular office on November 7 simply because you do not approve of either candidates from either party who was nominated. If we want to live in a democracy we must prove ourselves worthy of the privilege of selfl-govemment by exercising that sacred duty on election day. Show your friends and neighbors that you are willing to accept the responsibilities as well as the benefits of a free society by going to the polls this Tuesday. Christian Culture Series he Catholic Northwest Progress is pleased to combine efforts with the Archdiocesan Confraternity of Chris- tian Doctrine C.C.D. discussion group program in an attempt to bring a stimu- lating new series to our readers. Entitled. Christian Culture Series: Theology for the Layman, a full page bimonthly from Sept. 28, 1962 to June 14, 1963 will be dedicated to a fresh look at Catholic theology through the scientific study of Bible History. From the start we wish to draw our readers' attention to the fact that tiffs ap- proach is by no means limited to those who are actually members of a parish C.C.D. Discussion Club. We sincerely feel that the entire series can be read with interest and spiritual profit for each and every adult Progress reader. The Holy Bible is perhaps the most often purchased but the least read or understood book in existence. And yet it is to the Word of God that many prominent Catholic and Protes- tant leaders look for an eventual grounds of mutual understanding. Protestants are for the most part committed to the proposition that the Bible is the sole rule of faith. They love the Scriptures and are fond of quoting them. We, as Catholics, could most ef- fectively show our separated brethren the truth of Catholicism if we could first of all trace effectively the history of Christ's Kingdom through the Old and New Tes- taments pointing out basic elements of the Catholic Church as they appear as far back as Sinai. And because our sep- arated brethren are intensely interested in the Bible, they would listen: To enable our readers to become extremely familiar with the main themes developed by Sacred writers of both Old and New Testaments and to know how to discuss Sacred History intelligently with non-Catholic neigh- bors is a main purpose of this course. This goal. as we said earlier, is desir- able not only for Discussion Club mem- bers, but for every Catholic layman and woman living in the 2oth Century. Over and above the apologetic val- ues, the increased appreciation for the liturgy that will result from a deeper knowledge of Sacred Scripture is itself a sufficient motive to study the course carefully. There is no more rewarding occupation than studying the Bible. The study of God's own Word has a sacra- mental value which we too often over- look. We are convinced that separated Christians are most interested in re- examining the claims of Christ's Church. Witness their general enthusiasm over the coming Ecumenical Council. But we will not convince them of the Catholic Church's claims with mere sentiment or externalism, nor will con- versions be brought about by mere gen- eralizations. Eventually doctrine, dogma, must be discussed. We must therefore prepare ourselves to answer the non- believers' objections and to answer them on their own grounds. It is with these ideas in mind that the C.C.D Discussion Group series was conceived. We look forward to bringing the Christian Culture series to you and wel- come your interest and comment. Discussion Club Attractive By Rev. John P. Doherty, Ph.D. Archdiocese: CCD DlrectcMr (EDITOR'S NOTE: The Progress is sponsoring a Christian Cultural Series begin. ning September 28. The material, which constitutes a /resh approach to the study of theology, will ser,e as interesting and informative reading for clergy and laity as well as a text for CCD discussion clubs and other groups throughout the Archdiocese. This article by Father Doherty is the second of four to be published beore the series begins.) F you stop to think Each clubis made up of from tions from their pooled know- about it, there is not a group in all the world that is held in more admira- tion than the members of the Catholic Church. Oh, it may not seem so at times, but in their hearts they admire us because of the his- tory of our spiritual ancestors, because of the obvious conse- cration of the total lives of men and women to the service of Almighty God, because of the efforts and evident sacrifice of Catholic parents to attend to the "character education" (meaning the soul) of their children, because of the many things we do (on Sundays, on Fridays, and everyday) which appear difficult things, though we realize they are a minimum of service to God. These and many other things make us attractive people, ad- mired people. Now people who ar, admired are inquired about a.:d ques- tioned. And most questions asked about our Catholic faith or practice have a basic mean- ing: six to 12 members. At the first meeting two "of- ricers" are elected. The looser the organization the better but a permanent head or president and a secretary are necessary. The' president's task is a sim- ple one. He is the stabilizing element who sets the date and place for the next meeting, sees to it that the group keeps to the program it has assigned itself, foresees any difficulties and eases them off, assigns work to the other members, appoiras the leader for the next meeting. The secretary records at- tendance, jots down the prog- ress made at each meeting, reads the summary of the pre- ceding meeting, notes the dif- ficulties or unsolved questions and refers them to the parish priest for answer, reports on the answer or solution at the following meeting. Each meeting has a leader and this simple task can be assigned to each member in turn. The leader is not the teacher, indeed he is just as much of ledge and experience. It's the exchange of ideas, the participation by all in the conversation that makes up the bulk of the meetings. Under the chairmanship of the leader all are encouraged to participate. Let's suppose (as it is my fond hope) that you find the discussion club an attractive idea for yourself. What then? First, mention the idea to your pastor or his assistant, The priest will welcome your enthusiasm to learn more Of the faith. Our late Holy Father Pius XII recommended its val- uable aid to' the pastor's work of formation of discussion clubs where the laity may organize in small groups and gather periodically in one another's homes for religious discussion and friendly exchange of ideas. It is not necebsary for the priest to attend all the meet- ings or even the majority of the meetings. His occasional presence is, of course, very desirable and an unsolves ques- tions can be referred through the secretary to him. "What makes you differ. eat?" "What makes me ad- mire you and your Catholi- cism?" We'd be making a+big mis- take if We failed to see this a learner as anybody else. But The next step to take is to he acts as chairman for one, spread your enthusiasm to session, getting the discussion others, attract members to started, keeping thediscussion form with you a discussion on the subject, observing the club. Restrict your group to proper time limit, preferably people of approximately the bne hour. meaning couched in the words of the other questions they ask. As to the meetings them- And so we come again to the selves, they should be held ev- necessity of knowing our faith better in order to respond to questions ethers'are asking of us. The idea of belonging to a discussion club is then an at- tractive idea. It gives the average Catholic a comfortable and enjoyable means of satisfyin a hunger to learn more about the faith, more about the application of Christ's teaching to daily liv- ing, to the complexities of mod- ern life, to the questions others are asking of us. The discussion club is at- tractive because these results are obtained without any for- mal clasroom disciplines, without lectures, without ser- monizing, but rather through the brie reading and conver- sation about a religious topii. The r-embers meet bi-week- 13' in their own homes. The at- mosphere is relaxed, informal. cry two weeks during the school year. Fnllowing t h e Christian Culture Series, each member 'will receive the text for discussion through The Progress, he first text appear- hag September 28 and there- after at two-week intervals to the beginning of summer. The only interruption will be during the busy Christmas sea- son. At the direction of the leader, each member in turn reads brief passages from the text while the other follow in silent attention. After the reading of each passage, the leader encourages the members to retell in their own words what has been read. Each one is free to add his own pertinent observations and to raise related ouestions. Mem- bers of the roup seek to work out the answers to such ques- same age level and of nearly the same social and education- al backgr md. I would especially encour- age clubs made up of married couples. Also, restrict your group to a minimum of six members and a bursting at the seams maximum of 15 members. The best number for a free flowing discussion is 10 or 12 members. Also, restrict your group to people who are willing to do a minimum of reading, thinking, praying between the meetings. In practice this demands a small time for "homework" for each hour of meeting. All members should be will- ing and able to exchange ideas, avoiding, of course, all argu- ments. And lastly, but very import- ant restrict members to such as will attend the club meet. ings regularly, faithfully, refus- ing to be drawn away from them by other interests. Handicapping Ourselves Borrowed Editorial: Liturgical Week Great Success HE Seattle Liturgical Week was a great success. This is the con- sensus of almost everyone who attended it. The success of the Week was due in large measure to the cooperation of A r c h b i s h o p Thomas A. Connolly and his local committee. The national officers of the Liturgical Con- terence said that they had never before met with so much cooperation. The Catholic Sentinel pre- dicted editorially that the lay participation in the Liturgi- cal Week Masses would be a refleotion of the normal par- ish worship rather than just a one shot "convention gim- mich." The prediction was fulfilled. It was a tribute to the leadership of Archbishop Connolly and his archdiocesan liturgical commission, one of the most active and best qualified in North America. It would be wrong to imag- ine, hmvever, that the work of the liturgical movement will be finished when the normal par- ish Mass everywhere is one in which the congregation takes an active part. External participation is im- portant to emphasize the fact that people are not mere spec- tators at UIass and other litur- gical actions. The promotion of external participation is comparatively simple, once the technique is mastered. It is much more difficult to educate people to a greater degree of internal participation. Father Ferdinand Antonelli, O.F.M., an official of the Sac- red Congregation of Rites, who was himself largely responsible for the reform of the Liturgical Services of Holy Week, says that Rome can reform the lit- urgy, but only priests engaged in parish work can make these reforms meaningful for their people. It is providential that the liturgical renascence is tak- ing place at the same time as similar renewals in the study of the Bible, theology, cate- chetics and social action. Without these, the liturgical movement would be in danger of drifting off in the direction of the romantic movements of history, art and architec- ture in the 19th century. It is quite significant that the Holy See never vhowed any en- thusiasm for the Gothic re- vival of the past century. When Pugin tried to popu- larize "Gothic" vestments in the 19th century, Rome forbade their use. Now the more ample type of vestment is permitted, not because it conforms to an- cient styles, but' because it is more in accordance with what modern man considers beauti- ful and appropriate for divine worship. The success of this year's Liturgical Week came from a genuine blending of the exter- nal part of our worship with the d e p t h of understanding which gives life to participation in the liturgy.--Catholic Sen- tinel, Portland, Ore. Calendar SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 9, THIRTEENTH SUNDAY AF- TER PENTECOST, MASS: Respice, Domine--Have regard 0 Lord (Green) GI., Cr., Pref. of Trinity. Mass for Parish. MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, ST. NICHOLAS OF TOLEN- TINE, CONFESSOR, MASS: Justus--The just (White). G1. TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, COMMEMORATION OF SS. PROTUS AND HYACINTH, MARTYRS, MASS of 13th Sun. after Pent. (Green). No. GI., 2nd Pr. of SS, Protus and Hyacinth, no Cr., Com. Pref. Or MASS: Salus autem--The salvation (Red). G1. WEDNESDAY, S E P TEM- BER 12, MOST HOLY NAME OF MARY, MASS: Vultam mum--All the rich (White). GI. Pref. of B.V.M. THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 13, FERIAL THURSDAY, MASS of 13th Sun. after Pent. (Green). No Gl., no Cr., Com. Pref. FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, EXHALTATION OF THE HOLY CROSS, MASS: Nos autem -- But it behooves us (Red). GI., Cr., Pref. of H. Cross. Abstinence: SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 15, SEVEN SORROWS OF THE B.V.M., MASS: Stabant juxta crucem--There were standing (White). GI., 2nd Pr. of St. Nicomedes, Seq., Cr., Pref. of B.V.M. , I i II 'I Am A Free Man' By REV. G. JOSEPH GUSTAFSON, S.S., Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, St. Thomas Seminary, Kenmore "t='weet are the uses of adversity," O Shakespeare makes one of his characters say. We thought of this as we read some challenging pronouncements by Cardinal Wyszynski, primate of Poland, who fearlessly leads his Church beset by adversity on all sides. The problem of modern man, said His Eminence, is whether he shall live "like a serf, renouncing his freedom, his reason, his will, licking boots, or stand upright with head held high, professing the truth, defending his dignity." As for himself, he proudly proclaims, "I have the right to criticize. I am a free man and not a slave." His position, we gather, is not altogether acceptable to his countrymen. He voices dis. satisfaction with certain "pseudo-intellectual Catholics" and with those "intellectuals, even Catholics who smile and say, 'Oh well, the Bishops and priests will muddle their way through somehow . . . let's not put our necks on the block.' " Referring to his own diplomatic acts and utterances abroad "because he does not wish his country to be ill-spoken of", he affirms his resolution that "here at home he is not going to be so careful; he is going to fight back, because he too is a son of Poland, and hatends to have his rights as a citizen re- spected." In a recent address he issued a challenge which surely must go beyond the borders of persecuted Poland, so long faithfulto Christ, and which will be heard, we hope and pray, around the world. "Who among you, gentlemen, will stand up and defend the right of the Catholic family everywhere, not just behind locked doers, but at the door of the schools? "I know that in telling you all this I am going to lay myself open to attacks in the press. I am the guilty one, the troublemaker, the in- stigator, the one who sows division in society; I shall be accused of all that, I know; but I prefer to be accused today rather than in 50 years' time." Researeh Brings Surprises: Do Large Classes Learn More? (Enlightening and little-known /acts about what e//ect. large classes have on the child's learning are brought out in the /ollowing reprint of one .o[ Mr. Breig's weekly columns which are widely syndicated in the Catholic press. (Mr. Breig, assistant managing editor o the Catholic Uni,erse.Bulletin, Cleveland, and a columnist of The Prog- ress, says the term "'large class" in his di+scussion should be defined as a class of 50 or more pupils.) By JOSEPH BREIG HAVE BEEN noticing of late that many parents are troubled over the fact that the growth in school-age population has pushed upward the num- ber of children in most classes. Parents, I have found, tend to take for granted that (other things being equal) a boy or girl will learn more in a small class than in a large class, because of more indi- vidual attention from the teacher. Personally, I have had my doubts about this. In the school I attended many years ago, classes were large; and they seemed to turn out youngsters whose educations would com- pare favorably with almost anybody's. Furthermore, I have watched the schooling of my five children. All of them, all through grade school, were in large classes. When they came to take entrance exams for high school and college, they made remarkably good grades. It did not seem to me that all this could be IOSEPH BREIG explained on the ground that my children and I, and my classmates back in the good old days, were a pack of geniuses. So I decided to see what I could find out on the question. Answers To Inquiries MADE inquiries. Were any facts available? Had surveys been l made? Had children in large and small classes been exam.  ined, and their degree of learning compared? If so, what were the results? My impression that large classes are nothing to fret about was astonishingly confirmed by what I discovered. I was referred to "School Needs in the Decade Ahead," by Roger A. Freeman, published by the Institute for Secial Science Research, 917 15th St. N.W., Washington 5, D.C. On page 81, the author considers the question of small classes versus large classes. He begins by observing that it seems logical to assume that children learn more in small classes than in large, and that a lot of effort has gone into trying to prove that this is so. Mr. Freeman then reports that in the past half-century, more than 200 research studies have been made comparing class sizes with pupil achievements. He says that the more important of the 200 studies were re- viewed by the Encyclopedia of Educational Research. Here is what the encyclopedia reported about 73 of the surveys: 16.4 per cent of the studies resulted in findings signifi- cantly in favor of large classes. 23.3 per cent were in favor of large classes, but not signi. ficantly so. 38.4 per cent favored neither large nor small classes; that is, found no significant difference. 4.1 per cent were significantly in favor of small classes. 17.8 per cent were in favor of small classes but not signi- ficantly so. 'Results Of 'Controlled Studies' O MUCH for 73 of the more important studies. The encyclo- pedia then turned to the results of 24 "controlled studies." Of these, 20.8 per cent brought findings significantly in favor of large classes. 29.2 per cent were in favor of large classes but not signi- ficanly so. The same percentage--29.2-- favored neither large nor small. 4.2 per cent were significantly in favor of small classes. 16.6 per cent were in favor of small classes, but not signifi- cantly so. Here is Mr. Freeman's comment: "It appears then that 40 per cent of the research reports favored large classes, 22 per cent small classes. "Of the more recent, and more scientifically controlled studies, 50 per cent favored large classes, 21 per cent small classes. "We note then the amazing fact that factual research studies found better than two to one that pupil achievement is higher in large than in small classes." Mr. Freeman observed that the encyclopedia, summing up (pages 214-215), said that "the general trend of evidence places the burden of proof squarely upon the proponents of small classes . . On the whole, the statistical findings definitely favor large classes at every level of instruction except the kindergarten." 'Pray For Peace' N additional stimulus o remind us to "Pray for Peace" appears in the.mail cancellation which carries the mean- ingful words "Pray for Peace". Rep. Louis C. Rabout of Mich- igan who introduced the bill in the House Was also the author of the legislation which insert- ed the words "under God" into the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag. The following excerpt is from the explanation of the bill appearing in the Congressional Record: "The Committee . . . consid- ers that the thing of most im- portance to the unsettled world of today is peace, and any ac- tion taken toward achieving it worthwhile. It was felt that the use of cancellation stamps bear- ing the words 'Pray for Peace' would encourage the great body of our people to do so, and to work actively towards its ac- complishment." Myron Taylor, speaking be- fore the Newman Club in' Cleve- land, Ohio said: "It will avail free men and women nothing to have vast material resources and military power if there is among them little conviction that the issues calling now for t h e i r utmost endeavors are moral issues. It will avail the cause of freedom nothing if the efforts of the moral forces of the world lack the unity of ex- pression w h i c h should arise from their kindred vital inter- ests in religmus freedom and the achievement of a better world built on moral founda- tion" On October 23, 1948 the members of the Last Man's Club, William H. Jutras, Post No. 43, American Legion, N. H. resolved "to pause for one minute in the midst of our daily task, at 12 o'clock noon each day, and, raising our heart and mind toward God, ask Him to help us adjust our international differences to enable the nations of :the world to secure an equitable and abiding peace". The idea has spread; the Gdv- ernor of Michigan issued a proclamation e n d o r sing the plan: S c h o o 1 s, universities, church groups, business firms, a n d fraternal organizations h a v e adopted the practice. Candles have been lighted in the home shrine and by many organizations as a symbol of these vigils for Peace. In the silences of little oratories light- ed only by the glow of the can- dle light, night-long vigils for World peace are k e p t each month on the eve of the First Friday, by people kneeling be fore the statue of the loving heart of Jesus. 907 Terry Avenue, Seattle (4) Telephone MAin 2-8880 Second-Class Mail Privileges Authorized at Seattle, Wash. Published by the Northwest Progress Co. President, Most Reverend Thomas A. Connolly, D.D., J.C.D. REV. JAMES H. GANDRAU--Editor MARY BRESNAHAN--Associate Editor