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June 7, 1963     Catholic Northwest Progress
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June 7, 1963

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4--THE PROGRESS Second Seeion Friday, June 7, 1963 Messages From High0000And Low l00:xpress Sorrow EE I Complied from NCWC News Service Dispatches Rulers of nations and ordinary men from all parts of the world, including many non-Catholics and even atheists, have flooded the Vatican with messages ex- pressing sorrow on the death of His Holiness Pope John XXIII. Meanwhile, Catholics and others gathered throughout the world to pray for the repose of the soul of the late Pontiff. Among the heads of state sending messages were President John F. Kennedy, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and United Nations Secretary General U Thant. Statements, praising the Pope's character and his program, came from world figures on both sides of the Iron Curtain. Catholic leaders throughout the nation voiced grief at the death of the Pope and hailed him as one of the great popes of modern times. Leading clergy and laymen, including among them prominent non-Catholic leaders, stressed the Pope's concern for the in- dividual, for religious unity, for world peace and justice. They said he had set the Church on new paths, and predicted that his influence would be felt far into the future. Archbishop Egidio Vagnozzi, Apostolic Delegate in the United States, said: "The work of Pope John for the 'aggiornamento' (updating) of the Catholic Church, for a more charitable understanding between men of various religions and creeds, and for a more confident and determined effort among nations to avoid war and to secure peace, will continue to bear fruit and to be a promise tothe world for better days to come." In Washington, D. C., President John F. Kennedy immediate- ly led the nation's mourners for Pope John XXIII with an eloquent tribute to the Holy Father's "wisdom, compassion and kindly strength." The President, who had planned to call on the Pope during his mid-June trip to Europe, said: "The highest work of any man is to proteet and carry on the deepest spiritual heritage of the race. To Pope John was given the almost unique gift of enriching and enlarging that tra- dition. "He brought compassion and an understanding drawn from wide experience to the most decisive problems of a tumultuous age. The ennobling precepts of his encyclical and his actions drew on the accumulated wisdom of an ancient faith for guid- ance in the most complex and troublesome problems of the modern age. "To him the divine spark that unites men would ultimately prove more enduring than the forces which divide." A telegram of "profound condolences" was sent to the Vati- can after the death of Pope John XXIII by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, who said in part: "We retain good memories of John XXIlI, whose fruitful activities for the maintenance and strengthening of peace have earned him wide recognition and won him the respect of peace- loving peoples." Said UN Secretary General U Thank "A most noble life has come to an end... Pope John XXIII in his recent and memorable encyclical 'Paeem in Terris' spoke for all men and to all men in restating his belief in the dignity of the individual, in fundamental human rights, in justice and in an effective international order." James Francis Cardinal McIntyre, Archbishop of Los An- geles, said: "The coming and the passing of the world wide beloved Pontiff John XXIII has manifested God's goodness and mercy upon our times. In his simplicity and firmness of purpose John XXIII has been a true father to all men--a loving father and a gracious friend and companion to men of all races and climes." The sentiments of the Catholic laity were expressed by Mrs. Joseph McCarthy, president of the National Council of Catholic Women, who said that Pope John "was a humble man, a saintly man, who gave courage to the millions of peoples in our smal world confused by the strained threats of nuclear war." Frank H. Holler, president of the National Council of Catho- lic Men, said "Pope John gave warmth and positive encouragement to the growing role of the layman in the Church. His encyclicals have emphasized the part that laymen must play in reconstruct- ing the social order and as a result have given new fervor and direction to the apostolate." More telegrams and messages of sorrow continue to arrive at the Vatican. Nations and individuals of countries sending sages of condolences have been received from the following: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bul- garia, Burundi, Cameroon Republic, Canada, Chile, China (Na- tionalist), Colombia, Congo Republic, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dahomey, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, E1 Salvador, Ethiopia. Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxem- bourg, Malagasy Republic, Monaco. Netherlands, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru Philippines, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Senegal, Soviet Unio Spain, Sweden, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Republic, United States, Uruguay and Vietnam. Until A Success00or L00IS Elected A Pope Who Worked For . " ity Renewal, Peace, Un What happens after a 7. Designate the day for the ...... '::* : ::::: pope dies? How is his successor chosen? Who directs the Church between his death and naming of his successor? There is a sure, and de- tailed series of steps spelled out for Vatican officials to fol- low after the Pope's death. Custom, ancient ritual and recent laws -- some of them written by Pope John XXIII himself- have established the procedures to be followed. Although the Church is plunged deep into sorrow over the pontiff's death, a corps of Vatican officials begins im- mediately on the work to name his successor, a process cli- maxing in a secret conclave of the world's cardinals. The cardinal chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church guides this process. This chamberlain, or camerlengo, is Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi Masella. The Cardinal chamberiain's job requires him to take im- mediate possession of the Holy See's properties and minister the temporal rights and goods of the Church. It is he who officially veri- fies the death of a pope by visiting the death scene and receiving the report of attend- ing physicians. New Duty Added The cardinal chamberlain had a new duty added to his re- sponsibilities by an October, 1962, instruction of Pope John. This charged him with pre- venting any person from tak- ing photographs of the pontiff as he was dying or after he was dead. Photos may be taken of a deceased pontiff for reasons of proof or testimony, but only with the cardinal chamberlain's express permis- sion and only if the pope is dressed in the pontifical robes. This instruction was designed to avoid repetition of a per- formance similar to that of Pope Pins XII's personal phy- sician who photographed the Pontiff and turned the pictures over to newspapers and maga- zines. After verifying the death, the chamberlain officially notifies the vicar general of Rome who announces the de- mise to the people of Rome. The vicar is Clemente Cardi- nal Mieara. The chamberlain then gives orders for other necessary noti- fications to be made. The dip- lomatic corps, for example, is officially informed by the papal secretary of state, an act which is the secretary's last official job, because his office is not jurisdictional, but administra- tive under the direction of a living pope. The secretary is Amleto Cardinal Cicognani, longtime Apostolic Delegate in the United States. All Cardinals Summoned Word is then sent from the Vatican to all cardinals to come to Rome for the conclave to elect a new Pope. The day after the pope's death, those members of the College of Cardinals who are in Rome begin to hold daily meetings called "preparatory congregations." What the cardinals are to do in these meetings is de- tailed for them in an apostolic constitution written by Pope Pins XII. It is entitled "Va- cantis Apostolicae Sedis" (Of the Vacant Apostolic See). This directive'says the cardi- nals must: 1. Read the Complete text of the constitution, after which each cardinal takes an oath to abide by it. 2. Elect a chamberlain if that post is vacant. 3. Make arrangements to be- gin the conclave as soon as possible. 4. Fix the day and manner for taking the pope's body to St. Peter's basilica for the final respects of the faithful. 5. Arrange for the nine fu- neral Masses and determine the time for the first six meet- ings of the cardinals. 6. Designate who will give the eulogy for the dead pope and the exhortation for the choosing of a new pontiff. reception of the diplomatic corps and the Knights of the Holy Sepulcher. 8. Name committees of two or three cardinals each for examining the needs of the conclavists, for naming the persons to be admitted to the conclave, for constructing and sealing off the area of the Vatican Palace which will be used for the conclave and for assigning cells. 9: Examine and approve ap- propriations for the expenses of the conclave. 10. Read letters from heads of state, reports from apostolic nuncios and all that may be of interest in any way to the College of Cardinals. 11. Read such documents as may have been left by the dead pope for the cardinals. 12. Break the fisherman's ring and the die for the offi- cial seals used in the Apostolic Chancery. 13. Draw lots for cells during the conclave, exceptions being made for the advanced age or infirmity of individual cardi- nals. 14. Fix the date for entrance into conclave. Only Necessary Business Conducted In the meantime, the govern- ment activities of the Holy See continue, but only the abso- lutely necessary business is dealt with. This administration is con- ducted by the cardinal cham- berlain. He acts with the ad- vice of a committee of three cardinals, the deans of each order of the three in the Sacred College -- b i s h o p s, priests and deacons. In extra- ordinary matters, he can con- sult with the entire college. While some titles with which Cardinals are invested lapse with the death of the pope, others do not to assure that Church business will be at- tended to. For example, the cardinal penitentiary retains his post. He continues to decide on cases of conscience, his main function. He is the only cardi- nal who is entitled during the secret conclave to receive let- ters which are not first opened and examined by the secre- tary of the college and cus- todians of the conclave. The ordinary faculties of the Roman congregations--that is, those which they exercise with- out having resource to a pope --continue during the inter- regnum. If, however, a case should arise in which it is necessary to have recourse to a pope and which cannot be deferred, the Sacred College can declare the prefect of the congregation involved, plus another cardinal, competent to take joint action. Even such a move is pre- visional, however, for their decision must be submitted to the new pope after his election. Papal chamberlains--the very reverend Monsignori--lose their rank with the pope's death. They can regain it only by reconfirmation by the new pope, an act usually performed. During the interregnum, the papal masters of ceremonies, whose office does not cease, but becomes in some respects more important, perform the task the papal chamberlains would normally handle. Election Time Limited Cardinals must enter into conclave to elect a new pope within 15 to 18 days after the pontiff's death. This time was established by Pins XI in a 1922 decree entitled "Cure Proxime." Previously, according to a 1904 ruling of Pope St. Pins X, the conclave was to start after the nine days given over to the funeral honors for a dead pope. As the number of cardinals in parts of the world far distant from Rome increased, how- ever, this meant that it was virtually impossible for them to get to Rome in time. Thus, Pins XI extended the time to 15 days and gave the cardinals authority to extend it to 18 days if necessary. Before entering the con- clave, the cardinals attend Prayers for the Pontiff THESE PICTURES taken in Vatican City were symbolic of the entire Catholic world as Pope John XXIII, after rallying, suffered a relapse and was given Extreme Unction. At upper left the rosary photographed against the back. the Mass of the Holy Ghost, celebrated by the dean of the Sacred College, Eugene Car- dinal Tisserant. They hear a discourse on the election of a new pope, usually given by the secretary of briefs to princes. Each cardinal may take two persons with him into the con- clave. They may be one cleri- cal or lay assistant, and a personal attendant. If a cardi- nal decides to take only one person, it must be a layman acting as his personal attend- ant. The affairs of the conclave currently are governed by two documents. The first is the 1945 apostolic constitution of Pope Pius XII entitled "Vacan- tis Apo. stolicae Sedis." The other s an October, 1962, series of amendments and new instructions published by Pope John. It is called "Summi Pontificis Electi." Pope John's document has changed the system of vot- ing. Previously, the require- ment was a vote of two thirds plus one. The new rules require a simple two-thirds majority. However, it is specified that if the total number of car- dinals present cannot be divided into three equal parts, one vote more than a simple two-thirds is de- manded. Voting takes place in the famed Sistine chapel. It is by secret ballot. Two ballots are taken each morning and eve- ning until a new pope is chosen. No cardinal can vote for himself. Requirements Repealed Pope John repealed an earl- ier requirement of excom- munication for cardinals who, without being prevented by reasons of health, do not meet to vote after the bell announc- ing a balloting has sounded for the third time. Pope John also ruled that the conclave is ended by the elec- tion of a new pope. He knew that after his own election many persons entered the con- clave area to extend congratu- lations and technically incurred excommunication since the con- clave was not officially ended until the following day. Ballots Burned Although Pope John de- manded that the cardinals in conclave must turn in all of their writings, such as a per- sonal tally of the votes, the ballots still will be burned, with the world watching the puffs of smoke from the con- clave to see if a pope has been chosen. When a vote fails to produce a decision, the ballots are burned in a stove with damp straw. This is designed to pro- duce a heavy black smoke and let the people in St. Peter's Square know that the voting continues. The ballots from the vote on which a pope is chosen are burned without damp straw, producing a light-colored smoke and the signal that a successor has been chosen. To hasten selection of a pope, the cardinals are cut off from the world. No one is allowed to enter or leave. After three days, if unsuc- cessful balloting continues, the amount of food supplied the conclavists is cut down. At one time, the cardinals were forced to live on only bread, wine and water after (Continued from Page 2) :::: :: faces are persecution, the Com- munist menace, the spread of atheism, the lukewarmness of many Catholics, reumon of the : Eastern churches with Rome : :::i and reorganization or renewal of the church to meet modern ::: conditions. His major goals can be stated in three words: renewal, unity and peace. In his first public utterance he appealed to the leaders of nations to work for peace. But he did not temporize with Communism. Early in his reign he issued an official "admoni- tion" that it would be sinful for Catholics to vote for any political candidate, Communist or otherwise, known to support Communists or their activities. His first encyclical, Ad Petri Cathedram (To the Chair of Peter), June 29, 1959, invited .... separated Christians to return ground of the Pope's residence accentuated Catholic prayers for, the intercession of the Virgin Mary. Many of the great acts and documents of Pope John had been carried out or published on days of great Marian significance. (Religious News Service Photo.) five days, but this was abolished long ago. When a candidate has re- ceived the required number of votes, he is asked by the cardinal dean whether he will accept election and by what name he wishes to be known. Since the time of John XII, who died in 964, each Pope takes a new name in imita- tion of St. Peter's change of name. If the candidate accepts elec- tion, the canopies over the seats of all cardinals except the pope-elect are lowered by the master of ceremonies. Vatican archives where they will be preserved. Then he must write a re- port regarding the results of the votes at each of the con- clave sessions. This report must be approved by the cardinal dean and, like the cardinal's writings, is to be preserved in the archives as a historical document. None of these documents can be consulted by anyone with- out the permission of the reign- ing pontiff. A pope is elected for life, although he may resign ff he chooses. In theory, any male Clothed in Papal Garments Catholic can be elected pope. The new pope is escorted to an adjacent room where he is clothed in papal garments, previously prepared in a va- riety of sizes. The cardinals then advance to pay their first homage. Next, the new pope confirms or appoints the cardinal chamberlain, who puts on the pope's finger the papal "fish- erman's ring." This is followed by the dra- matic appearance of the senior cardinal deacon before the people gathered in St. Peter's square and listening on radio and watching on television to announce the name of the new pope. The senior cardinal deacon is Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani. More Duties for Chamberlain While the Catholic world re- joices, the man who has guided the Church during the inter- regnum, the cardinal chamber- lain, still faces more duties. He gathers up the writings turned in by the cardinals in conclave, puts them in sealed parcels and takes them to the Should a layman be chosen, he would have to be ordained and then consecrated as a bishop. In practice, selection of a layman is unlikely. to the Catholic church and ap- pealed for renewed efforts for world peace. Only a month later the second encyclical marking the centenary of the death of St. John Vianney, dealt with the priestly life. The third encyclical, Greta Recordatio, (Grateful Mem- ory), Sept. 26, 1959, urged Catholics to pray for five intentions: guidance of the Pope, success of missionaries and the Christian apostolate, peace among nations, success of the Roman synod and success of the Vatican Coun- cil. Still another encyclical in 1959 urged increased recruit- ing and training of priests and lay missioners, and asked Catholics in mission areas to take active part in public life. The Pope's vital interest in the missions was shown when, Holy Thursday, 1959, he got to his knees to wash the feet of 13 missionary priests, and the following May he consecrated 14 missionary bishops. When, in October 1959, he presided at the centenary ob- servance of the North Amer- ican College in Rome, he made the first announcement of the coming beatification of Mother Elizabeth S e t o n, American- born convert and founder of the Sisters of Charity. This was done last March 17. Late in 1959 Pope John added eight cardinals, further inter- nationalizing the College of Cardinals. He called the third eardinalitial consistory of his reign in March, 1960, bringing the total to 85. Among the seven nominated for the honor were the first to be named for Japan and the Philippines, and the first Negro. Still a fourth consistory in January, 1961, elevated four more card- inals, among them Joseph Cardinal Ritter of St. Louis. Pope John has canonized ten: Charles of Sezze and Joaquina de Vedruna de Mas, April 12, 1959; Gregory Bar- barigo, May 27, 1960; John de Robera, June 12, 1960; Bertilla Boscardin, May 11, 1961; Mar- tin de Porres, May 6, 1962; Peter Eymard, Anthony Pueci and Francis Croese, Dec. 9, 1962; and Vincent Pallotti, Jan- uary 20, 1963. Many believe the two great- est pronouncements of Pope John's reign were Mater Magistra, issued July 14, and Pacem in Terris, April 10, 1963. The former encyclical com- memorated Pope Leo XIII's historic Rerum Novarum, like it dealt with social blems of the age. In 25,000 words Jope John outlined four problems and their solutions: the depress- ed state of argrieulture in an increasingly technological world, vast differences be- tween underdeveloped and advanced nations, lack of trust among nations, and re-,talk lation of inereasing worldl population to economic de- "qw velopment. One new thesis advanced in the encyclical is that care- fully regulated socialization can be advantageous and desirable. On numerous occasions in the past year Pope John urged nations to apply the principle of this social encyclical. The opening of the chureh'g mw first ecumenical council in more than 90 years was the high point of the fourth year of the reign of Pope John XXIII. The Pope several times showed his concern for the church behind the Iron Cur- tain. He sent a letter to the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Wys'zynski, on subject, and when the Polish bishops arrived in Rome for the ecumenical council, they were the first to be received by him. On the eve of the council, Pope John journeyed to the shrines of Assisi and Loreto. The latter is almost 300 miles from Rome. This the longest trip taken by reigning pontiff since the time of Plus IX, pope of the First Vatican Council and the last pope to rule beyond the confines of Vatican City. During his last year, Pope John often appealed to world leaders to avert war. He took to the radio in late October A while U.S. warships encircle Cuba to enforce the America arms blockade and Soviet mer- chantmen still were Cuba bound with nuclear weapons President Kennedy had declar- ed contraband. "Let them do everything in their power to save peace," the Pontiff urged world lead- ers, "To promote, favor and agree to negotiations at levels and at all times is rule of wisdom and prudence." This was not the Pope's only plea for peace in the year that preceded the fourth an- niversary of his coronation. In his Christmas radio message to the world he urged rulers to "shun all thoughts of force." The final encyclical with peace on earth. It eeived tremendous press cover- age all over the world. Death came so soon after this great document that it may almost be regarded as a final will and testament of a great Pope to the whole human race. For un- like previous encyclicals, it was addressed not only to Catholics, but to everyone. The great unfinished of Pope John is the Second Vatican Council. Cardinals Serve As Interim Rulers THESE FOUR CARDINALS share most of the burden of running Church affairs un- til a new pope is elected. From left, they are: Eugene Cardinal Tisserant, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Aloisi Cardinal Massella, camerlengo (chamberlain) of the Church who assumes control of the Vatican; James Cardinal Copello; and Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani, head of the Holy Office.