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Catholic Northwest Progress
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April 16, 1965     Catholic Northwest Progress
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4.---THE PROGRESS Friday, pril 16, I% !"heologian Upholds Morality of Alabama Boycott / (The author of the following article is professor o[ oral theology at St. Joseph's Seminary, Washington, D.C., , t the author o/a 1964 book on "Theology and Race Rela- tions." He was asked for a moral appraisal of the call by 'Negro civil rights leaders el a boycott el Alabama.) By Father Joseph T. Leonard SSJ {N.C'W.C. News Secvie) i Dr. Martin Luther King's proposed boycott against Alabama raises many questions, not only about time- liness, legality, and mode of implementation, but also bout its mo.ral aspects. The moral theologian is not qualified to answer ions in regard to implementation or timeliness, but he can, the light of principles of moral theology, consider the moral aspects. As explained by Dr. King April 2, the endeavor which he is inaugurating is an "escalated economic withdrawal," whose pur- pose is to enable moderates to become more active and assertive in the exercise of leadership. His program consists of three pro- gressive stages of increasing economic pressure. The first stage, which is effective at once, urges industries "to suspend" plans they may have for plant expansion or loca- tion in Alabama. At the same time, the federal government is urged to undertake more extensive enforcement of Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act which provides for the withholding of ederal funds from projects where there is racial discrimination. | The second stage will not become effective unless a two-week trial run of the first stage indicates that there is a lack of "good ith response." Various institutions, churches and labor unions re asked to see that their nds are placed so that they do not nefit the economy of Alabama. And the federal government is sked to withdraw tax monies on deposit in Alabama banks. , The third stage would entail a nationwide boycott of "selected' Alabama-produced consumer products. A proper moral evaluation judgment d this boycott must en- tail a separate examination of each stage. While each of these steps involved the omission of certain acts, nevertheless, the en- tire program cannot be considered negatively as simply one of withdrawal or non-conperation: A boycott, by its very nature, in- volves the withdrawal of patronage from a certain company, just as a strike involves the refusal to work for a company. But both the boycott and the strike, as they exist in our modern economy, are powerful social weapons. They are cap. able of wielding tremendous forces and influencing and affecting many more individuals than those immediately involved in the eo,troveray, Both the innocent and the guilty; both participants and by- standers are involved and injured. For this reason, the right to strike or boycott should be exercised only for the weightiest reasons and, as it were, as a last resort, to remedy an evil situa- tion when all other attempts have failed. It can be compared with a nation going to war as its last possible and extreme defense against unjust aggression. Indeed, the program of escalation as set forth in Dr. King's program, can in certain aspects be compared to the escalated action in Vietnam where there is a gradual increase of force utilized, but still falling abort of all-out war. There can be little doubt that the Negro community has a |ust grievance in the denial of rights, particularly in areas where this denial appears to be, at least, a semi-official policy. Tim protests and demonstrations which occurred in Selma Idmwod the aronsed consciences of many Americans against such a policy. Nor can there be much doubt as to the relative ineffectiveness and great difficulty confronting many attempts to secure a rein. edy. It is easy to understand Negro frustration with long and costly court fights; with the hydra-headed technique of evasion of laws Preview, Set Of 'Boris Godounoff' Members of the Seattle Op- era Guild are ring a spe- cial previmv of "Boris Goudou neff" to be given by Milton Ira. and musically illustrated by Miss Dorothy Cole, Thurs- day, April 29, at 10:30 am in the Washington Athletic Club auditorium. Mr. Katims, Seattle Sym. phony conductor, will be guest conductor for the Se- attle Opera Ams4w.iation's production of "Boris Godon- noW' May a and 8, with Glyan Rou as the general chairman. Invitations for the preview have been sent to members of the Opera Guild, members of the board of the Seattle Opera Association, and season ticket holders. The general public is also cordially invited to attend and admission is complimen- tary. o "'The moment I realized that God existed, I knew I could not do otherwise than to live for Him alone." --Charles de Foucauld NEW LOCATION DESKS--CHAIRS--FILES NEW and USED CRAWFORDS 11JO-3rd Ave, - MA. 3-4210 Seattle TOUR LEADER by. A. |. r.,scm, SJ I Lod by Fah,, s. Co,,Jz, n, torm,, D,,. o/ Students Gonzaga University, and Chaplain of ! Sacred Heart Hospital, presently Retre,a Master, Loyola Re.eat nous,, Portland, Oregon. J For additional ;nTormafien and brochure CALL AT 4-6182 SEATTLE cw wflte to: PAULSEN BLDG. GLOBAL TRAVEL SERVICE SPOKANE HOLY .LAND TOUR 21 DAY EXCURSION DEPART AUGUST 2 by many officials; and with the forces and money which must be Stage two involves institutions, such as churches and labor expended to accomplish even minimal integration, unions, rather than industries. It is recognized that such institu- Regarding the first stage of the program, I believe that there tions have cash on hand from pension funds and endowments. are no moral objections to it. Here the purpose seems to be the same as in stage one, namely First, no undue force is being wielded against these industries, to affect the economy of the state through the withdrawal of They are simply being requested "to suspend" plans for expansion or location in the state. Every state government is anxious to see new industries come in because this will increase employment and consequently the economy will flourish. Obviously, when a govern- ment realizes that its domestic policies are deterrents to these industries, it is most amenable to change such policies. On the other hand, the industries themselves hav e, I believe, an obligation toward the common good. Their sole function cannot be considered merely the amassing of profits for stockholders' benefit or even the benefit of its employees. They also have an obligation to the community itself in which they locate. Consider the case of so many one-industry towns. When that industry moved away, lured by cheaper labor markets or better tax benefits, they have left behind ghost towns in which former workers are stranded either because they own homes which they cannot abandon or because they are too old or inexperienced to get new jobs elsewhere. These companies which have been in. fluenced solely by the profit motive have been completely oblivious of any obligation to the community. I believe industries have an obligation to help improve the common good of the community. They cannot remain indifferent to the needs of the community but should, when they can, use their influence to improve the socin-neonomic welfare. In this country, the most pressing and urgent domestic need is the im- provement of race relations and the removal of racial dis- crimination. Here then industries are asked to exercise an influence on public officials by withholding one of the things which aid those officials to remain in office*-the continuing influx and expansion of industries in the area. No undue pressure is applied on the com- panies to do this, nor is that which is asked immoral, namely the suspension of expansion plans. In. reference to urging the federal government to increase en- forcement of Title VI, rather than asking if such urging is im- moral, it might well be asked why such appeals be necessary at all. For these reasons, I do not see any moral objections to stage one of the program. these funds from the general economy. A similar request is made to the federal government regarding tax funds. I believe the same moral evaluation should be made of this activity as of stage one. It is not morally objectionable. However, I must confess that I personally do not see the ef- fectiveness of this stage, primarily because it is so much less visible than the other. I feel that much of the effectiveness of this type of action lies in its visibility. Here too, those who would be affected most would be persons seeking loans since with a scarcity of money, one of the first effects would be the increased cost of loans. This pressure would seem to be applied on individ- uals who could feel it but not have its reason or cause immediate. ly apparent to them. This stage is restricted to institutional funds rather than money in general, and it seems that if bank officials could see and realize the loss of a large account they would bring pressure on the officials for an alteration of attitudes and practices. However, if withdrawals were universal and extended to all funds, thereby creating a bank and economic crisis, a different moral judgment might have to be made of this stage because of the disproportion between the injury done and the good effects which would be an- ticipated. Regarding the third stage, this involves a boycott of "care. fully selected" consumer products. This appears to be the heart of the entire program and the other stages represent preparatory steps. It would be helpful and interesting to know the criteria to be applied for the "careful selection" of products. Here there is no doubt that the innocent, will be injured along with the guilty. If it is an effective boycott, certain companies will lose sales and profits; merchandisers will lose profits; and the state will lose tax moneys. In addition, employees will be faced with loss of time and layoffs, so that the general economy will suffer as a result of reduced buying power. It is here that we can particularly see that a boycott is a powerful weapon and not merely non-coopera- tion or omission. Nevertheless, if the first restricted stages should fail to im- prove the racial climate, then, I believe that this restricted boycott would be morally justified. Assuming that the method of "careful selection" will be reasonable and predicated on a pertinent and non-arbitrary basis, I believe that this limited boycott would be morally un- ohjectionahle. Of course the question arises as to the injury done to the innocent. Every use of the weapon of boycott or strike involves necessarily some injury and inconvenience to innocent parties. As to the selection of certain companies rather than others, I think that a parallel situation would obtain in the instance of unions calling a strike against specific companies in an industry rather than an industrywide strike. As a matter of fact, it would be less easy to justify a total, all-out and universal boycott. In such a case it would be diffi- cult to see how the common good would not be so seriously in- jured as to make such a boycott immoral. Individuals and even large groups of individuals do not have the right to wage what could amount to a total economic war against a community. Another thing we should bear in mind in considering the moral effects is that a great number of Negroes in Alabama will also suffer--and probably more deeply and intensely than their white neighbors. Most of them will accept this added burden willingly in hope of a better future while some of them will object to dis- ,turhanea of their security and peaceful tenure. This same is true in regard to the whites immediately affected--many of them will chafe at the hardships and losses, but also many of them will be willing to undergo these inconveniences to pro- mote eventually the common good and to remedy racial dis- erimination. In like manner, a question might be asked as to the obliga- tion of a man in another section of the country to help by participating in such a limited boycott, especially where his cooperation will aid in insuring the success of the boycot[ and the eventual betterment of the common good, and where he will be caused but minor inconvenience. I think that here a case could be shown that such an obligation existed in particular CaSes. A DOCUMENTARY Pope Paul's Passion Sunday Sermon Following h a translation of a synopsis of Pope Paul Vl's Passion Sunday sermon Apri!,4 in which he spoke of the grave and sad page narrating the clash between ]esus and the ]ewish people" who "finally killed Him." The synopsis was prepared on the basis o[ a tape re. cording published April 7 in the Vatican City daily, L'Osservatore Romano. The, Pope spoke without a re. pared text and no off,clot text is m,ailable. The Holy Father's ser- mon last Sunday, the first Sunday of the Passion, to the faithful of Our Lady of Guadalupe can be sum- med up in the fundamental con- cept: Know Christ, since ignor- ance is at the root of so many evils, and therefore follow Him, love Him, and make ourselves worthy of His sacrifice censure. mated on the cross. We are endeavoring to report here the thoughts of Pope Paul VI on such a lofty subject. The Holy Father began his sermon by noting the excep- tional picture presented by the great multitude of the faithful gathered in the open, under the sky and the sun of spring. To each of those present he gave his greeting and his blessing. After the Mass, he was to .speak more fully of this meet- ing. The spirits and the hearts of all were then called to medi- tate earnestly, with concen- trated attention, on the text of the Gospel which had just been read. It is a grave and sad page. It narrates, in fact, the clash between Jesus and the Jewish people. That people, predes- tined to receive the Messiah, who had been awaiting him for thousands of years and was completely absorbed in this hope and in this certainty, at the right moment, that is to say when the Christ comes, speaks and manifests Himself, not only dces not recognize Him, but fights Him, slanders Him and finally kills Him. On this Sunday we enter in- to the liturgical period of the Passion, which prepares us for the Holy Easter mysteries. We are asked by the Church to meditate on the sufferings, unto death, of Jesus, and then on His resurrection. When, on Good Friday, we again see Jesus--the Son of the living God, our Redeemer, the friend of men, the most ami- able, the most holy--crucified, ENJOYING HER MONOPOLY of the Pope's time arid attention is little Maria, whose speech of welcome is reinforced by her balloon which reads, "Viva the good shepherd." Pope Paul had come to the parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe on Passion Sunday, April 4, in his round of Lenten pastoral visits. we will ask ourselves the rea. son for this execution and for such atrocious sufferings. Why was Christ nailed to the Cross? What wrong had He done? The Gospel asks this same q u s t i o n, precisely through the lips of Jesus: "Which of you can convict lne of sin?" What can you accuse me of or reproach me with? The Church wishes the faithful to know these beginnings of the Passion of the Lord. The Church wants them to know its causes, its roots, its psycho- logical origin within souls. There the aversion for Christ b e g i n s, and the movement which went so far as to crucify the Lord. This meditation is salutary because it predisposes one to understand better the drama of Calvary. And so, what shall we say today? We will note that this fact, apparently absurd and un- thinkable, that Jesus, the Son of God, came into the world and was not recognized or ac- cepted but opposed and killed, is repeated and prolonged, It is a historical reality with a sequel. It touches even us. We must ask ourselves why the Lord has so many ene- mies even today. What harm New Liturgy Said to Show Catholic Devotion to Bible as something quite new in the Catholic Church. What is new to the wide* spread interest in biblical study. For this we must thank God... "One of the lasting fruits of the (ecumenical) council will be a growing knowledge of the inspired word of God . . . It will take time to discover how best to take advantage of the rich treasures the Church is un- folding. We must be humble as we gratefully accept the new gifts the Church now .offers. But we shall not despise the old." LONDON (NC)--Use of Eng- lish in the Mass has shown Protestants how much the Bible means to Catholics, according to Archbishop John C. Hcenan of Westminster. "Spoken in an unfamiliar tongue the Epistle and Gospel were not recognized," the arch- bishop wrote in the Westmin- ster Cathedral Chronicle. "The priest kissing the book of Gos- pels and the people standing while he reads it were always signs of the reverence the Cath- olic Church has for the word of God. It is misleading there- fore to regard love of the Bible has He done to mankind, that such a large part of it turns. against Him and is so fiercely opposed to Him? It has reached the point where they think they are doing right by attacking Chris- tianiW, which has lavished treasures of justice, peace, liberation and sanctity. Them are admirable gifts which Christ has brought with Him. Why does not the Gospel, after it has been preached for 20 centuries, arouse friendship in the world? Why does it not have an easy, spontaneous and joyous welcome? It finds it, yes, in not a few souls, in you certainly. But that fact de- serves to be examined and well understood by us. It is the tragedy of innocence slandered and killed. It is the clash be- tween good and evil. Jesus wanted to confirm in Himself today the word by which the precursor, John, had defined Him: He is the lamb of God, that is to say the victim, who takes on Himself the sins of the world. And again we ask our- selves why. Among the many reasons we will only indicate one, which we hear from the lips of Jesus in the hours of the agony on the Cross. It is the moment in which the goodness of Jesus is effused in a sublime manner and reaches unthinkable peaks. What does He say on the Cross? Does He condemn those who have nailed Him on the Cross? Does He desire their ruin? Jesus speaks with the heavenly Father and prays thus: Lord forgive them for they know not what they do! They do not know. The same thing repeats itself. We per- ceive a phenomenon of ignor- ance and lack of knowledge in the tragedy of Christianity, in the very tragedy of Christ, who finds enmities, oppositions and hostilities in the world. Those who do not waft to receive Christ or who rebel against Him do not know wht they am doing. Hence the subject for a simple and serene speech on the part of the Supreme Pon- tiff. I would like, my children, to leave mine advice to you in memory of this meeting, of this visit of mine to your parish. Try to know the Lord better. Try to have within yourselves honest and precise information on the message of Christ, on this religion of ours which is often shown op- position and even fear. For what reason? Because beneath it all there is a sin of ignorance, a lack of a sense of responsibility. There is forget- fulness, superficiality, blindness of the soul. Let us beware of these evils. I wish that all of with our tradition, if they are .anxious to be intelligent men. And in knowing Christ, chil- dren, one might experience a tumult of'thought and perhaps of problems of conscience. We might perhaps feel as if we were reproached by Him Him- self. We might sense a kind of intolerance toward Him who comes to accuse us and take from us our miserable human peace. But then a luminous, great comfort will follow, and we will be able to exclaim: O Lord, you alone have the words of eternal life! You are our Saviourl You are the life of the world! It seems to me that my coming among you repeats, 20 centuries later, the work of the first Apostle, St. Peter, whose most humble and last successor I am. In his last letter, he specifically urged: Hasten to know the Lord. Be- ware that the Lord can be like a stone, which is for some a stumbling stone and a rock of scandal, and conse- quently of ruin, while for others it is instead the corner stone on which they build the edifice of their existence. This same message I repeat to you. It is always alive, ac- tual, authentic, as it was then. It decides the destinies of our individual persons and of the entire s o c i a I community. Either we accept Christ and we will be saved, or we do not know Him and then what will our life be heading for? What will be its fate? It is necessary to a c c e p t Christ and to make Him into the foundation, the basis, the principle of our existence. Je- sus enters mysteriously but triumphantly into our souls, into our lives. He will enter, mild and good, friend and teacher. We will certainly feel that He becomes the master of our being, that He comes to save us and console us, to say to us the words which illumine the mysteries of this our dark and sorrowful earthly pilgrim- you, that all of us, were solicit- age. ous in knowing the Lord bet. Children, do not" despise this ter. I wish that the word of humble voice which speaks to the Gospel which we have just read--in which it is asserted of my thoughts and of my soul, that the good heed the word of Gad'constituted your memory of this meeting, with me. That is to say, may each one of you realize the great obligation of heeding the voice of the Lord. It is the most obvious and pri- mordial duty, like saying: Open your eyes and look at the fight of the sun. This is indispens- able also for our temporal and physical life. If one is blind, what can his days be like? Well then, in the life of the spirit also, in the life of our resent and future destinies, is necesry for us to open our eyes; or better, to heed, to heed always, the voice of the Lord. It echoes in so many ways. Either in the secrecy of con- science or through the mouth of those who express it when they preach the Gospel, or again in the books which report it and offer it for our medita. tion. But let everyone know you. Accept it as the echo, not but of the very voice of Christ, becatlse I am His vicar, be. cause I have been sent by Him, because I am the messenger of His Incarnate Word and of His word. It is necessary to believe in Christ, to have faith in Christ. We must accept a Lord and Master so amiable: and adorable. We must introduce Him into the sequence of our thoughts and of our affairs and of our events. It is necessary to make Him the center of our solicitudes, our preoccupations and hopes. Do not fear, do not fear Christ. Do not be afraid of Him. Do not be reluctant to know Him. Feel, on the contrary, the great and sweet duty of study- ing Him and welcoming His precepts. At first, you will be dazzled by His light, but you will then be made happy, in- finitely happy, by His goodness and by His salvation. Christ if they wish to be Chris- tians. I would say more. Let SIovak Group To Meet them know Christ if they in- NEW YORK (NC)--The 43rd tend to remain in this civiliza, national Slovak Catholic Feder- tion of ours, matured by Chris- ation of America convention has tianity. Let them know Christ been scheduled for May 10 to 13 ff they wish to be consistent at the Hotel Commodore here. # #t Father Seaver Honored By Prep Mothers FATHER RICHARD SEAVER $3 Father Richard Scaver SJ, president of Seattle Prepara. q tory school, will be honored et the Seattle Prep Mothers' Club Spring Jubilee Dinner Dance which will mark the 25th reunion of Seattle Prop's Class of 1940 April 19 at 6:30 p.m. at the Olympic Hotel. A gift of audio-visual equipment will be presented to the school in Father Seaver's name. Father Seaver, Father George q Purdy S J, pastor of St. Leo's Church, Tacoma, and Father Philip Lucid SJ of the Jesuit Mission Band are among 19 members of the clas of 1940 who were together from first grade in St. Joseph's School through Seattle Prep senior year. President of the school since ]959, Father Soarer is the son q of the late Mr. and Mrs. Wil- liam Richard Soarer, both of whom became converts sepa- rately before their marriage. Mr. Seaver died in 1939 and Mrs. Seaver in 1964. Father Scorer's brother and sister are Major George W. Seaver S J, Chaplain US Army, at Madigan Hospital, Tacoma and Sister Ann, Myra SNJM, Supervisor of Student Teachers at Marylhurst College, Oregon. His other sister, Sister Richard Mary SNJM of Marylhurst Col- lege died in 1939. Father Soarer is the Catholic High School Principal repre- .entative on the executive com- mittee of District 10 of the Se- attle City system of high schools. I Mrs. Raymond Scheetz is chairman of the event assisted by Mesdames W. Bernard "loner, Charles Hancock Jr., Robert Polley, Earl Weber and Raymond Clark. Tuition Increased At Notre Dame NOTRE DAME, Ind. -- Un- dergraduate tuition  the Uni- versity of Notre Dame will be $1,500 per academic year ef- fective next September, an in- crease of $50 a semester, it was announced today. Also beginning next fell, tu- ition in the Notre Dame Law School and the University's d Graduate School will be in- q creased $200 to $1,200 for the academic year. Graduate end law school tuition had remained at $1,000 since the 1959-60 sohool year. Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., Notre Dame president, said the tuition icreases are necessary beausd of "contin- uaUy rising educationel o)sts." !