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Catholic Northwest Progress
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April 15, 1904     Catholic Northwest Progress
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April 15, 1904

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,1 ) A WEEKLY FAMII. NEWSPAPER. SEATTLE, WASHINGTON) FRIDAY APRIL 15, 190,k PRICE FIVE CENTb b HISTORY AND WHITMAN THE WHITMAN MASSACRE AND THE "SAVING OF OREGON. TO UNITED STATES" ABLY HAN- DLED BY MR. ,TAMES GARVE. Give Falsehood Fifty ears Start and Truth Will De a CentUry m Overhaul- ing and Suppreseing It. Historians Are a Unit on Whitman Matter. HERE were none of the &apos;}atho. lie missionaries at WaiilatDu at the time of the massacre and they did not hoar of it until tim next day. Father Brouillet was ou his way to Waiilatpu to con- sider arrangements for the transfer of the station. These arrangements had been made a few days previously to tbe massacre, wllen Whitman and Spal- ding called at the Catholic mission, took dinner with the missionaries and talked over the pro;msition of a trans- fer of Waiilatl)u station to the Catho- lics. Although Whituntn had long had fears of an outbreak against him, he stubbornly refused to leave. It is prob- able that his refusal to obey the Amer- ican Board in 1842 was remembered by him and he was loth to admit him- self in the wrong. But so many inci- dents lmppened to fill him with fear and he received so many warnings from all sides,that he went with Spal- ding to the Catholic missions, where, after consideration of the quesiton of trnsfe;, as above, he invited Father Brouillet to come to Waiilatpu for fur- they consideration of the subject. In response to lids invitatmn, Father Brouillet was on his way to Waiilatpu, when he heard of the massacre. He hastened to the scene of it, arriving there the day after it happened. He found the dead unburied and caused them to be interred, und was warned by the captives that if he were to show much interest, he might endanger his life. This seems to have been true -for .when he lef the plactwo Indians follwed him, presumably to spy upon his actions. The reason of his leaving so soon was the hope lm entertaiue0 of ' intercepting Spal0ing, who also was to have tattended the meeting for the consideration of the transfer of Waiil- atpu. Shortly after leaving, be met Spalding, Who was galloping on his way to Waiilatpu to keep his appoint- ment. The priest stopped him, at the risk of his life, and warned him not to continue fmther, and informed him of tbo massacre. At this itme, one of the spies came up, and the priest besuoght him to spare Spalding's life as a per- sonal favor to him. After some delay, the Indian promised to consult lis fa- ther. His departure to do so, afforded the priest an opportm:ity to transfer all the food he had with lfim to Spa.1- ding, who left is horse and plunged in- to the forest and was saved. The In. dians were mueb disconcerted by his escape. Ttmy thougtlt he priest should have minded his own business, and for a considerable time, it was !eared harm migh come to him for the part he took in saving Spaldiug's life. This is theiugrate, about whom we slmll hear presently,who laid heavy charges at the door .of the worthy man who saved him from a cruel death. This Spalding, m t848, in the Ore- gonian American, a small semi-month- ly paper, asserts that not only the half bleeds at Waiilatpu. but the Cath- olic missionaries assured the Cayuses ttmt tim Americans were causing them to die. "This statement," Bancroft says, "whiel was the begitming of a controversy not yet ended between the Protestants and Cathohcs, he made on the word of a Cayuse chief, named 'Tentimital, who, however professed nt to believe tqe accusation." "The mere intimation," Bancroft says, "of such atrocity exposes the hearts of those who madeira" He says that the Indians knew the inflamable substance, oI which Spalding was composed, and knowing that the mere mention of the word Catholic nealy set him wild, used to say such things to tease hun and en- joy the effect it ad upon him. What Prof. Bourne of the department ot his- age of enlightenment," many of whom accepted it wxthout objections. It reads in substance as follows: In Oc- tober, 184% Whitman,theu on business at Fort Walls Walla, accepted an in- vitation to dine at that trading post of The Hudson Bay Company. While at dinner, news came of the arrival of a colony ot Canadians at Fort Ooll- ville, from the Red River Company. The Company became jubilant, and a young priest, forgetting the presence of Whitman, cried: "Hurrah for Ore- gon! America is too late and welmve got the country!" Immediate'y Whit- man realized that if Canadian immi- gration had begun the authorities at  Washington ought to know of it and a counter emigration ought to b pro- moted, so that when joint occupation ended, tim presence of a majority of Americans would urn the bahmce io favor of th United States. In spite of protests, Whitman abruptly left the linner, nmunted his Indian pony and I in two hours, reeking with foam, the! faithful animal carried him to the mission s!ation at Waiilatpu. In a few hours, his simple preparations were made and he set Out for the capital. His journey across the mountains in tim middle of winter was slow ant . periloas. He arrived at Wash ington in the following March, just in time to secure the postponement of negotia- tions looking to the surrender of Ore- gon. "Incidental or collateral assump. tions usually accompany the state- ment,"says Prof. Bourne, "to the effect that great ignorance and indiffer- ence in regard to Oregon prevailed in Washington and generally throughout :he United States, and that Dr. Whit man was able to dispel the ignorance and to transform the inaifference into a deep and widespread interest. "In both the essentials and the ex- planatory details, the story of how Marcus Whitman saved Oregon is iic- titious. It is not only without trust- worthy contemporary evidence, but is irreconcilable with well established facts. The story first emerges over twenty years after tim events and sev- enteen years after the death of Whit- man." For a main argument, Prof. Bourne relies upon the records of the Am'ezican Board of Commissioners for ];oren-ilSSlOnS, which had charge of the work in Oregon. Various orders and letters of the Board at that time all go to slmw that Dr. Witnmn went East to argue fm the continuat n of the Southern branch of the Oregon stati(n. Professor Bourne has been nable to find any trace of contempo- rary evidence as to the presence of Dr. I circulated 'T]avels of Farnham' were I --21'---q|k / at least conduoivv to promote their history was being distributedas a pub- RVIW hl)" , , 3  boon the e,xse. The heresies of the first /eeuturies, which (lrew e, ntire eouutries mission to explore the Rocky Moun- tains, the Wilkes exploring expedition originated, al)parently, in the mune ot doctrines which their most ardent had explored tim Columbia river and FROM EARLIEST CHRISTIAN 1)artisans never understood. YEARS S3HISMS HAVE EXIST- The rude barbarians, Vandals and Visigoths, who, in the foarth and fifth centuries,overran the fairest provinces of Southern Europe and destroyed ev- Puget Sound regions two years earlier, and sub-Indian agent, Elijah White, was writing frequent reports to his su- periors at Washingtnn. "The igno- rance and indifference of the govern- ment, and the public," Bourne says, "are fictions of a latter day." In March, 1843, Dr. Whitman called on Horace Greeley and gave him an account of the conditions in Oregon, but said not,ing *u indicate that the journey East was either a political of rand or an endeavor to stir up public !sentnnent in favor of immigration; and neither of these subjects receives any mention in the records of the kmerican Boar(] at Boston. Writing from St. Louis, in May, 1843, Yhit- man says : "I have made up my mind that it wouhlnot be expedient to try to take any i'amilles across this year, except such as can go at this time. For that reasou Ihave found it my du- ty to goou with the party mysclf." Bourne says tlntt t the accounts of the immigration of 1843 he is nowhere montimmd asa leader, that he joined the immigration nut took no part in its formation ; that the fact that he re- turned with i has been transformed by legend into tbe accomplisbmolt of EF)OFTEN MORE ZEALOUSLY THAN INTELLIGENTLY DE- FENDED. lety vestige uf the once flourishing Church of Africa, gave the support of their arms to the tuopagation oI a her- A Review of some of the Principal esy, Arianism, whose l)rimary dec- Agencies that Lead toScnisms,--The trines they never understood and of H, etormation Oonsidered. wl|ich ,nany of them had never heard. I They rallied around a banner on which l was luscribed a word written in au ELIEVING intelligent Catholics l unknwn tongue and wlmse meauing Oal not know too nlutql abotlt ] was far beyou(l their comprehension. |' the evolution of ,mti.Lathohcllt matteled not Ihey had a banner "'- relitrions vo shall' rod;fish in It() tollo,v. Tl,ey eared uot wiu,t was seve, lal succeeding issues nstalhnents] Written tm its folds. | LDOI Ull eolues estollanlsln still el a tract written by Areld)ishop Rior- " " " ; ' '- dan and published by tbo Call|clio later, Eutychianism. The same fact a, pleviously announced purpose to or- ganize and conduct such a body of im- migrants ;that, from contemporary let- ters, i is clear that Whitman made no claim to have organized the immigra- tion; that the real force behind the immigration was the provision for granting lauds to settlers which it was expected would pass Congress in 1843. The Secretary of War received a letter from Whitman in June, I44, stating: "The government wxll now, doubtless, for the first time, be apprised through 9-on, or by means of ibis communion- lieu. of the immense immigration of families to Oregon whmh has taken place this year." According to Professor Bourne, the fictitious narrative originated with Whitmau's colleague, the Rev. H. H. Spalding, beo.r. ;n,ntioned, wile n- derwent a terrible nervous and physic- al strain at the time of tim Whitman Massacre in 1847 ann claimed to be- lieve that the massacre was instigated by the ()atholio missionaries. His re- peated charge at last brought forth a reply from Father BrouilleL tLe vicar- general at Walls Walls, and nine years later, the Brouillet 1)amphlet was in- Truth Society of San Francisco. It is as follo}'s : The (3atholic (3hurel is a body of doctrine and a form of gover,ma(mt which interprets and exl)lains the dec- trine and al)plies it to the ouls of men. The Refornmtion, in its begin- llins, was a protest not so much against the body of Catholic doctrine, as against the manner in which the government of the Church was admin- istered As it waxed strong, it was deemed necessary by its founders to place it upou a doctrinal basis, and make it seem the expression of a creed. A belief in something is tim rnot prin- ciple of every society, and a creed is only that principle clothed in words. The studeut of history is not sur- prised at finding that in the l(;th cen- tury there was a defection from the authority of the Church on the part of many of its meml)ers. Such an event is nothing' new or unexpected in its history. It wai pedioted by St. Paul that i defections would take place; that now and then there Would be uprisings against tne teachings of the Church of Christ, and revolts against her author- 'te lteed' noL greatly wonder thikT, such be the case, wl:en we reflect timt many of her doctrines run directly counter to the passions of the human heart, and that the fundamental prin- ciple upon which her entire system ot belief is built, and without which di- viue faith is an impossibility and Christian unity a mere illusion, name-: ly, submission of the intellect to her: ecouls. Those heresies were about abstruse 1acts of dootrioe. The me. itunt they were broaclled thousan(is rallied o their defense who lut(i not the slighest; notion of their nteaning. Synod after Synod was convened. Council after Council held, bur, the spirit of the heresies oulived them all, and at the present day, in the far-elf countries ot the East, m the provinces of Scriptural Asia, thousands proclaim themselws dmciples of :Nestorius and of Eutyches. Who Nestorius and Eu- tyohes were they know not, wila they taught they know still less, Schism arises, most disastrous in its .consequouees, and whleh has retarded so much the progress of European eiv- ilization. The principal questiou at issue between the Roman and Greek Churches m an abstruse question con- eerning the Holy Trinity. Does the Third person proceed irom the Father alone,or from the Father and the Son ? Separated from the authority of tile Church, which received it from God and proposes it to our belief, it con- tains no motives in itself to win our assent, and yet no heresy in ancient or modern times has been supported wih the same tenacity or has succeeded in athering to its obedience sue) a large number of adherents. .'hroughout r, ho East, ix every part of the vast era- taro of Russia, by millions of every class of society, this abstruse point ef doctrine, far beyond the comprehension of the most acute intellect, is put for- ward as the very test doctrine of Clristianity, upor whoso acceptance the eternal hopes el ma,khd are foanded. Whitman in Washington. Among the i eluded by J. Ross Brown in an official papers he has searched in vain, may be [ report that he made on t, ho causes of named the "Glbe," the "National the Indian war in Oregon and Washin- Ixtelligencer" and "Nile's Register," ton. "Althougl temperate in tone the although their pages 'for 1843 contain answer of Broufllet made ussortions many insignificant items of Oregon about the attitude of the Indians tow- He found alike silent "Curtis' I Wobster" and Webster's Private Cor- I respondence,"the diary of John Quin- cy Adams, chairman of the house com- mittee on foreigu affairs, Benton's "ThirW Years' Views," although Benton was a champion of Oregon,aud "Greenhow's History of Oregon," al- though Greenhow was a translator in thoState Department, and collocteda vast amount or iuformation about Ore- gun, likewise the "Life aud Speeches of Senator Linn," of Missouri, who was tl0 most adwmced leader of the Oregon party. The only conteml)oray evidence of Dr. Whitman's activity in Washing- ton, which the professor has foand, s in a letter, which purports to come from the missionary himself, wtieh he is said to have written after his re- tmo Oregon, and also statements, wh he is reportea to have made in conversation with a man on his return iourney. The letter was sent to the Secretary of War and accompanied a bill, which Whitman had drafted to promote a safe intercourse with Ore- gon. The verbal statements were made to a fellow immigrant named Lovejoy, but "Lovejoy's Recollections" show no trace of the Spaldiug legend of Whitman's having arrived m tim nick of time to save Oregon to tim United States. "Oregon was in no dange of being lost," says Proessor Bourne. "The real danger was that the govern- meat would be pushed by the Oregon advocates in the West into an aggres- sive policy which might result in war with Englaud." The fact that the Linn Bill pased ard the Protestant missionaries and the causes thereof, whieh the mssion- aries regarded as slanders. Mr. Spald- ing then set out to overcome the harm done. By lecturing on Protestant rots- ions and the work of Whitman and the massacre, he accumulated a mass of material, which he got lmblished as an officml document under the title, Early labors of the missionaries of the American Bt,ard of Foreign Missions ill Oregon.' " As an element of this campaign, ac- cording to Professor Bourne, Spalding developel the legend of Marcus Wldt- man and his wonderful ride, "be- cause," he says, "nothing could ntore effectively catch the pubho ear and )reparo the public miod for resent- ment against the Catholics." This Spalding's story of tim massa- cre, though ludicrous in the extreme is wortt reading to show the mind of the man who conceived ano penned it. Following is part of a report of the nmssacro, which he forwared to the Secretary of the Interior: "This Brouillot actually proceeded to baptize the blood stained children of the but- chering savages while the butchery was going on and the unburied dead and gasping bodies lay about his feet lmgs and dogs runuing about with parts in their mouths; the soreanls of our young women, writhing in the hands of unrestrained brutality, his church music; and wire, with his bish- ops and associates handed oer with their owu hands, our yo=ng, helpless girls to be brutalized oefore our eyes. And tlmse arc the Jesuit monsters, written guidance in matters of revealed truth, is calculated, from its very natule, to exoite a formidable opposition front the most deply lct)l(d inq:erfectio of the heart--pride. It is not to be cxpotod, in the pres- ent dispensation of Divine Providence, in whieh man's ;roe will remains uu- trammelled even under the powerful action ot diviue grace,that all who re- ceive the truths of the Clnistmn reve- lation should retain them unimpaired. Why man should alienate himself from the spirit of Christ the Savior, should refuse to drink of the waters that flow from the fountain of truth and morality,a,d consequently of true 1)rogre.s and civilization, is sufficient- ly accounted for by him who has tbe lightest knowledge of the eontradic- tory elemeuts that compose the heart of man. False guides and false prol)h. ets have in every age verified thopre- : diction of the Savior ot men. The his- tory of the Church has always been marlod by the history of heresies. Of the Christian era, at the very time men were gatherin aronnd the Apostles, numbers wire hacl received the faith lost it. The last writings of the well be.eyed Apostle are of a con- troversial eharaotor-against those who were once numbered among the ehil. dron of the Church, and whom the spirit of evil had driven from its fold. The sects of the first century, whose endeavor it was to engraft the rrors of paganism on'the Ghristmn system, had scarcely passed away when they were replaced by others. Their ents were sometimes few, sometimes many. Their numbers never depend i ed on the character of the doctrines that were taught, but principally on causes prompted by humau motives and devised for the attainment of worldly cuds. Every attoutive reader This fact reomriug in every age is most astonishing and humiliating, and suggests to every roflectlng mind this Conclusion: That those heresies did not owe their rise or fall to the pecu- liar do0trines of whicl they claimed to be tim embodiment; that the vari- ous doetxines of their creed were mat- ters of mete indifference, tlmt had they professed even contradictory doc- trines their rise and progress would have been materially affected; that they had their origio in causes not connected wth religious doctrines, bu ratheI arose out of the peculiar circumstances of ho times. With them they ros' and with them they fall. At one time they seemed to overrun theeutire area ot Christendom, but. the tide began soon to ebb,and receded just in l)roportmn as it had adwmoed. ect after sec had disappeared, so that at the beginning of the 16th century the Cimrch obeyed but one spiritual head, a geat reconciliation had just taken place in the Commil of Con- stance, in wlfich national jalouses and prejudices seemed to have been exting'ished and rival claims adjust- ed. Church and State were again v(orking harmoniously logo,her. The Church giving the State the powerfal support of her moral influene0, sanc- tinning witt her blessing its laws, and keeping uppermost ia the minds ot the people the great moal prinei 1)les on which all governments must bo built if timy arc to realize the ends for which they are established The State, on the other hand, extended its protection to the 2hureh,and took care that its laws were not violated with impunity. Its high posts uf honor and trust, all the emoluments within its giving, were reserved for her faith- ful ohildren. Christianity was the law tory at Yale University has to say about this Spaldiug, compels one to the Senate Feb. 3d, by a vote of four ( disbelieve that he had even the word o twenty two, providing or the ex- of those Indians, ia jest or in earnest, upon which to base his statements. The ride of Marcus Whitmau, as written by S1)aldiug, is ably consider ed and commented upon by Prof. Bourne, He, certainly, has the in- stincts of au historiao. He could not accept the statentonts of Spalding. The bear the ear.marks of falsity, and tension of the laws of the Umted States over the wh )le of the Oregon Territory, goes to show that there was not the slightest danger of the Sen- ate's ratifying a treaty to alienate the territory. Does it not seem ludicrom to 'say that a solitary missionary ac- complished what a majority of the Senate had already voted aud what whoso record in Oregon is with Protestant blocs and the bloc0 of American fathers and Infants and mothers. The Brouillot, who could thus help on tim horrid butchery, of Protestants and Americans, not able to meet the overwhehuing testimony agaisut him, fled three thousand miles to a New York institution and proper. ed a paper composed of forgeries against t3e best otizens of Oregon." Go,ument upon this would seem uu- of history nmst be struck at this as- tonishiag fact, the more inoomprehen. sible thodoctrines broached, th far- tbcr removed from the sphere in whleh men move and aot the more speoula- t,ve they were, the less influence they had on the practical affairs of life, the greater was tim number of tlmir par- tisans, for whom they became a watch- word and a symbol oi faith. We would na,urally expect that doctrines of this nature would presoot but few attrae- DEATH r OF A IlONEER CfIRIS ENNIS OF WALLA WALLA GRATEFt LLY PRAISED BY HIS FELLOW TOWNSMEN. LEAVES HAILOWED MEMORY. tits Beligio-s Vrofessions and Practi- ces Made Him the Model Ctizen, the Exemplary Fathex and Ide- al Churchman WALLA WALLA, April :),--Mr. Chris Ennis one of the most highly re- sl)ected citizens of eastern Washington died on the morning ot the 7th after an heroic struggle of more than two years. He loaves an estinmble wife md ten cldldreu. The funeral took )lace this morning and inmdr(ds of friends pai,t their last. tribnte of re- Sl)ect to his memory. 'l:he family residence was tl)rown el)ell at S o'<.leek a,,(l for an hour many hnndreds of triends took a last oek at the familiar features of a man vho was heloved a:)d resl)ected l)y the entire 1)Ol)ulation of Walla Walla coun- ty. The rcmaitts incased in a band- some easke( wtre lying in state iu the parlor of the residence r,nd banltod about the room in l)rolusion wore a mass of beautiful floral tributes,which had been contributed by he (txfferont Cat;Italic societies oLvhich the deceas- ed had beou a member and from his many personal frieds in tim city. .. At S:;40 a procession was formed at the Catholic church composed of the students of La Sallo Institute, St. Vin- cent's academy, members of St. Mich- ael's Council No. 309, Young Men's Institute, members of the local branch of the Knightscf Columbus, Rev. M. Flohr. and altar boys of the Catlmlio churclL They poeeeded to the resi- dence and, after passing through the parlor and viewing the remains, re- turned to tim street, and then marched again tc the church. When the imad of the procession reached the church building the . ,ranks were opened through which passed the hearse bear- ing the renntins, and imcks containing the family of the deceased. At the church Roy. Father Flohr celebrated high mass ann delivered a short eulogy of Mr. Ennis" His ad- dress was very eloquent and fervent, and he paid agloing tribute to the life and good deeds of tim deceased, extolling his virtues in a most feehng manner. Father Flohr said stud in part : "While it was the wish of the de- .eased that no flowers be placed upon his cofin, yet there is a wreath of mmortelles there that will neve fade. A wreath of immortelles formed ot good works done in life, a wreath that will live and boar witness of his love for his God, his love for his Church and his love for his fellowmen. No i)lossoms nlore fail') no floweIs nlole beautiful,could man t)lace to his mem- ory than those which by his true Cath- olic liie, his silent deeds of olmrity and Ills el)on heartedness to t;he afiiof ed, he himself has created." In closing he called atention to the uneertaintiosof thi lifand tim ne- cssity of.'.always being prepared for the final call to judgment. The church was thronged with mourning friendsaud the solamu ca- dences of psahns rendered by thoehoir touched te hearts the of listeners. A the conclusion of the services the casket was borne front the sacred edi. lice by .rchio Dunnigan. E.F. Mas- sam, Thomas Lyons, Alexander SImn- lon, M Ryan, Joseph J. Mangan,Jol,n P.Kent and Philip Clark, tbo pallbear- ers, to the hoarse, when the fuueral corteg took up is solenm nlarch O the Catholic cemetery. The proces- sioa was headed by the members of the Young Men's Institute, tollowed by the Rev. M. Flohr iu a carriage. Next came the hearse bearing the cas- ket. Then followed the carriages con- raining the bereaved members of the family of tho deceased,and lastly eame nearly two hundred carriages and bug- gies filled with the friends of the de- )arted. The streets were erowdod with au immense throng of 1)eople, who bowed their heads iu sorrow as the procession slowly passed by. At tim cemetery Father Flohr performed tha last last sad rites of the Churol in the presence of the larges throng ever assembled at a funeral in the history ot the city of Walla Walia. Business Suspended. Out of respect to the memory of the deceased and through sympathy for the bereaved tamily, all business was suspended between he hours of 9 and ll o'clock. All public ollices, i)aoks he was tor0ed to go to the ,riginal '(:tale legislatures were demandiug iu sources of information He learned resolunons? Profosor Bourne con ,that Whit,nan's ride East, iu 1842-8, eluaesthat theolaim "that Whitman had no political significance, but. on influenced Ame:ican diplonmcy in auy the contrary, was a religious errand way at Washiugton, is not only desti- purely, and played no part in savlng lute ot all evidence but is intrinsmal- Oregon to the United States. It is ly improbable." Is there any founda- worth while to give a summary of tion for the olaim that Wbitman's visit fm Spalding's story of this ride to show East dispelled ignor nee about Oregon hu gullability of the readm's of "this or inspired enthusiasm? The widely necessary; but, singular to say, some men higl- in politics, wanting the abil- ity or the iuolinatmn to disprove or verify it, allowed tlmmselvos to be im- posed upon by it. Concerning the trustwmthiness of Spalding as a source of information, W. H. Gray, a Worker with him in the Oregon missions, in a letter writteu Continued ou Page Five. ttons to the vast majority of nmnkiud that are but little interested in them, and that if they consented te cut them selves loose from ho hurch they once professed to bc the true Church of Christ and with whose spirit their ear- ly lives were so associated tba* it was iutet'woveu iu the warp and woof of their natures, it would be for dec- trices, false though they might be, but of nations. The treasures ot Greeiau I and Roman learning, tlmt had loug re- mained lddden, were once more brought to light, aud became the study of the schools of Europe. The fine arts were rovivod, an4 took such a rapid expansion that before the lapse of half a century more had been effeoted than for the 1,500 years previous. The Chureh and the churchmen were not backward ill tho movement. They were is leaders. The palace of the Romau Pontiff was the finest and every business lloase in the cir, y school el art in Christeudom, ann by a was closed. strange eoinoideooe the age o. tim Ref- oxmation is known in historyas the age of Leo X, Her missiouary spirit was active. The same love of the Church and her ssving doctrines, the same de- sire to make all manind partakers oi (Continued ou Papo 7.) Christopher Ennis. A friend of the deceased lmys the fe}lowing tribute to his noble charac- ter: "It has beeu truly said of Chris En- his ,that he was tim mOSt. univerally (Continued on Page 7.) :(i 4  i i /> !.i ::! L !:< 5 /