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February 7, 1964     Catholic Northwest Progress
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February 7, 1964

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2--THE PRQGRESS Friday, FeB. 7, 1964 Breviary Reform Seeks To Promote Full and Active Participation of All (The author of the filth of a series on the liturgical reform provided by the ecu- menical council, serves as one of the council's official advisers on liturgical mat- ters. A professor of canon law at the Catholic Univer- sity of America, Washing- ton, he is the immediate past president of the North American Liturgical Confer- ence.) By REV. FREDERICK R. McMANUS m..w.c, news serv,cu) T h e Constitution on the Liturgy, which is the first fruit of Vatican Council II, is pastoral rather than clerical in tone. Its direct concern is with the needs of the flock, the lay members of the Church. It is less concerned with the clergy, the shepherds or pastors who 'serve the people. In the entire reform of wor- ship and promotion of litur- gical understanding, "the aim to be considered before all else" is the "full and active participation by all the people." Superficially, Chapter IV of the council's document on wor- ship may appear to be an ex- ception. It deals with the Di- vine Office, the public prayer of Christ and His Church. In practice and popular estima- tion, this official prayer is ex- clusively the occupation (and obligation) of priests and some Religious. In point of fact, the council took a much broader stand and initiated a reform of the office so that it "may be better and more perfectly prayed in ex- isting circumstances, whether by priests or by other members of the Church." Naturally the bishops as- sembled in Rome were im- mediately anxious that priests and Religious, the ones who actually pray the daily office, should pray it worthily and with greatest spiritual profit to the Church. Their broader hope was that the laity should "recite the Divine Office, either with the priests, or among themselves, or even individually." Such encouragement from the council would be completely !i!(ii::i: FATHER MeMANUS unrealistic if a thorough re- vision of the Church's daily prayer were not decreed at the same time. The present-day of- fice is a marvelous compile- r i o n of readings, especially from the Bible, psalms, hymns, and prayers -- but its form and arrangement are complicated, repetitious, and formalistic. It is almost never celebrated with popular, congregational partic- ipation; few lay people find it an attractive form of daily rayer, in spite of its excel- nee of content. The forthcoming revision of the Divine Office, which the bishops decided upon, will be twofold: (1) a better selection of texts (content), and (2) a better ar- rangement of parts (structure). In an. earlier chapter of the document on worship, the court. ell had decreed a fresh, more varied selection of readings from the Bible for the Epistle and Gospel of Mass. The same principle will also be applied to the office, both in the Bible readings and in the passages taken from the Fathers of the Church and other writers. Historical inaccuracies will be corrected in the accounts of the lives of the saints; the quality of hymns will be improved. The structure of the office, according to the council, "is devised so that the whole course of the day and night is made holy by the praises of God." At present this design fails to work out in practice. Even in monasteries the parts or "hours" of the office have to be combined and celebrated at inappropriate times of the day. The clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry find it almost impossible to observe the pat- tern of the hours, planned for the different periods of the day. When the office is reformed in structure, it will clearly have three principal parts: (1) morning prayer, called Lauds, (2) evening prayer, called Ves- pers, and (3) an "hour of read- ing" (Mating). The latter will not be attached to any partic- ular period of the day, but will form a real service of Spiritual reading for all who take part in the office, whether in com- munities or alone. With this clear and simpler pattern, the lesser parts of the Church's daily prayer will fit into their secondary place: brief prayers for mid-morning, noon, and mid-afternoon -- but ,only one of these three to be obligatory for the clergy--and the prayer of Compline before retiring at night. The hour of Prime, a monastic prayer that is a duplication of the morning prayer (Lauds), will be sup- pressed. Whi'.e the process Of simpli- hying the office will involve some abbreviation as well, a lessening of prayer within the Church was hardly the council's purpose. On the con- trary, for those who must or those who choose to pray the daily office, the problem to- day is not the total period of time at prayer, but the need to get through so many psalm verses and vocal prayers: not too much prayer, but too many prayers to be said. If the office is revised well, it will be easier to pray with g r e a t e r deliberation, more slowly, in fact more prayerful- ly. Adaptations of the office in the form of "short breviaries," just as much the Church's prayer as the full Divine Office, will be worked out -- especially for communities of Sisters and of Brothers, but well suited to lay men and women. Still better, a single form of community prayer -- for ex- ample, a new version of Sun- day Vespers -- might be cele- brated together by the faith- ful, by the Sisters or Brothers of the parish school, and by the pastor and other priests. In this chapter of the Consti- tution on Worship, much is made of the bishop's authority, in the general spirit of decen- tralization that characterizes the council. The bishop may now dispense those otherwise obliged to pray the office. He may allow the clergy, on an individual basis, to recite the office in their own language instead of Latin. But here again, there is an immediate mention of the laity and their needs: any priest, without dispensation or permission, may celebrate the office in the vernacular language with a group of the faithful. Among the strong exhorta- tions addressed to the Church in the council's Constitution on Worship is the plea that "priests and all others who take part in the Divine Office" should "improve their under- standing of the liturgy and of the Bible, especially of the psalms." While it refers direct- ly to the Divine Office des. cribed above and now about to be reformed, this recommen- dation is applicable also to an- other kind of "public prayer" of the Church, less official and less formal. This is the so-called Bible service or Bible devotion, men- tioned in Chapter I of the con- stitution. Such services, which the council calls "sacred cele- brations of the word of God," are clearly related to the of- rice itself -- in spirit, because they are scriptural in their composition, including B i b I e readings, psalmody, etc.; in their form, because they follow the pattern and style of litur- gical prayer and action. These services are rec- ommended by the council as evening devotions, for exam- ple, on Sundays and on the weekends of Advent and Lent. Since they do not have any set or official form, they may be introduced into popu- lar devotional usage immed. lately -- and already are in . use in many places. Bible services, although not part of the office, deepen scrip- tural understanding and give a liturgical spirit to popular de- votions. They suggest one way of taking a long, hard look at existing devotions; this is now made necessary by the council which requires that "these de- votions should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, and lead the people to it, since, in fac L the liturgy by its very nature far surpasses any of them." The bishops of Vatican Council !1, who enacted the constitution by a vote of 2,147 to 4, were determined "to im- part an ever increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful" -- whether it is a question of the Divine Office or of popular devotions. In the office, says the con. stitution, C h r i s t "continues His priestly work through the agency of His Church, which is ceaselessly engaged in praising the Lord and interceding for the salvation of the whole world." Law School Dean Backs Negro Movements Of Protest NEW YORK (N.C.)--A priest who heads a Cath- olic law school has em- phatically endorsed the morality and legality of the Negro protest movement, including civil disobedience of laws Negroes consider unjust , and the use of children in civil rights demonstrations. The Roy. Robert F. Drinan, S.J., dean of the Boston Col- lege law school, said the present injustices suffered by Negroes create a "presumption" that ordinary legal and social means are not enough and "direct, supra-legal, non-violent action is the only alternative way" for Negroes to win redress of their grievances. Father Drinan, a widely known author and lecturer, spoke February 1 at a national legal conference conducted by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), one of the leading civil rights organizations. His subject was "The Changing Role of the Lawyer in an Era of Non-Violent Action." The Jesuit priest said the demand of Negroes for "all, here, now" is "not the im- patient cry of citizens irked at some temporary injustice." "It is rather the expression of the Negro's belief that the ordinary legal and political processes of America have no solution to the century- old dilemmas that confront the black American in a white civilization," he said. Discussing direct non-violent action, he said there are '!many actions and activities of minor- ity groups which technically might be deemed illegal but are or will eventually be judi- cially declared to be legally protected the the First Amend- ment or by similar constitu- tional categories." Thus, he said, a one-day pro- test stay-out from school may not be illegal truancy if done for a legitimate purpose, and non-violent demonstrations for the redress of grievances may not be disorderly conduct but rather a form of constitution- ally protected freedom of asso- ciation and assembly. "We simply do not know the outer limits of the basic First Amendment rights to have freedom of religion, speech, the press, assembly and of petition to the govern- ment for a redress of griev- A Gift From The Pope FOLLOWING A PAPAL audience in the Vatican, Pope Paul VI presents, among other gifts to West German Chan- cellor Ludwig Erhard, a medal commemorating the pontiff's LEAVING A PLANE at Leopoldville, Congo, three missionary nuns arrive from terror- stricken Kwilu province. United Nations helicopters were sent to rescue Christian mis- sionaries threatened by guerillas in the southeast Congo, east of Leopoidville. Pope Paul Deplores Terrors VATICAN CITY (NC) -,-Pope Paul VI expressed his sorrow over the at- .tacks on Catholic and non-Catholic missionaries in the Congo at his weekly gen- eral audience January 29. The Pope told the thousands of people gathered in the Vati- cart's Hall of Benedictions that "a special suffering makes us sad and thoughtful. It is caused by news of the acts of terror which are taking place in a young and great country which is most beloved to us, the Con- go, with Leopoldville as its capital." Pope Paul lamented the ter- rorism which, he said, was "direeted against persons and institutions of a missionary origin, and not Catholic alone, in that land which owes to the missions all that it pos- sesses of what is most gener- ous, most advanced and most human--its recent accession to modern civilization and to national unity." In the week before the Pope spoke Red-led guerrillas had murdered three Belgian priests and one American Protestant missionary, set fire to and forced the abandonment of many mission stations and killed more thari 100 Congolese govern- ment officials in a rein of ter- ror in Kwilu province. Deaths of other missioners were re- ported but not confirmed. Pope Paul expressed the hope that the terrorist attacks would be ended soon "for the honor of that beloved nation." He urged all at the audience to "honor the memory of those who have been murdered in this sad tragedy, to console our missionaries in their trials and sufferings by your solidar- ity and to pray so that order, concord and peace may be re- stored to the Congo and may reign everywhere in the world." Earlier the Pope had noted that those who had come to the audience experienced the meaning of the phrase "ubi Petrus ibi ecclesia" (where Peter is, there is the Church). lie said: "You, faithful as you are to Jesus Christ, who founded His Church on Peter, on meeting the pope you think of the Church which is concentrated in him and feel at this moment more than ever in communion with your brothers in the Faith, with the whole universal com- munity of believers and even in a sense with the whole of mankind." Writer Says Vietnam Coup Is Aimed At Neutralism By Rev. Patrick O'Connor SAIGON, Vietnam (NC) ---The rumble of tanks through dark streets but no gunfire heralded South Vietnam's second change of government in 13 weeks. By sunrise of January 30 the latest coup d'etat was over. Though all Saigon knew it had happened, hours passed without an official announcement say- ing who had deplaced whom and why. In the late afternoon when t h e Military Revolutionary before a well armed promise- breaking North Vietnam rein- forced and masterminded by Red China. There are indeed people in South Vietnam, especially towns- people, to whom neutralism looks palatable, almost inviting. Those who have had some ex- perience of Communism, es- pecially refugees from the north, most of whom are Catho- lics, dread the dangers of neu- tralism for themselves and their children. This correspondent was fin- ishing an article on this topic after midnight on January 30 n cess' C .o.,,, he commented, trip to the Holy Land. Shown center is Msgr. Federuci Pri onversion "The First Amendment may Callori di Vignale of the papal household, Council had held a long meet- Mi d ti bathe treasury of more free- d Citi Brings xe Reac ons doms than a newly pluralistic ing at headquarters, SaigonRa- Serving the Entire America has yet dared to FHA R mi die broadcast an announcement AMSTERDAM (NC)-- imagine." n s zeus that theexecutiveeommitteeof North End, Queen Anne Hill, The revelation that Prin- Father Drinan denied that Of H g R the council created November civil disobedience of laws OtlSln ules l hadbeendischargedandthat Capitol Hill, and Magnolia, cess Irene of the Nether- deemed to be unjust implies lands has become a Re- disrespect for the law. (Continued from Page 1) visor of FHA's Zone VI, coy- Maj. Gem Nguyen Khanh had man Catholic was greeted Rather, he said, such be- the requirements of FHA ering the 11 western states, been named the new chairman Mercer Island and Bellevue Also in attendance Was Rev. of the council. With mixed reactions in Dutch havior "involves the highest regulations." fJmmmm' John D. Lynch of St. James General Khanh broadcast a possible respect for the law." An accompanying Certificate Cathedral, co-chairman of the declaration saying that the gov- Protestant circles. "If an individual or a group of Equal Employment Upper- Seattle Conference on Relig- A spokesman for the 24-year- secretly or violently sought to tunlty (Form No. 2010) must ernmental organization set up on and Race and member of old Princess announced Janu- overthrow such a law, such also be signed by the sponsor the Central District Coordi- after the November 1 coup had ' ary 29 that Princess Irene had conduct would be disloyalty to a n d prohibits discrimination hating Committee for Civil "proved incapable and antirevo- been received into the Catholic the idea of law itself," he said. "against any employee who is lutionary." He stated: "The 870 W00DLAWN AVE. takevlew 3-2000 Church by Bernard Cardinal Rights. Alfrink of Utrecht. Her parents, ,'But when citizens openly employed in carrying out work Queen Juliana and Prince Bern- disobey a law that they hold receiving FHA assistance, or Prior to his appointment last army is determined to sweep [ATTL[ hard, are Protestants, as are all to be unjust and ask for the against any applicant for such December as director of FHA's out the Communists and Viet- namese traitors standing for other members of the Dutch penalty, they are saying in employment, because of race, Seattle Office, Hess served as neutralism to restore se- royal family. Princess Irene is effect that they would rather creed, color or national origin, state senator since 1956 and as " " " be in jail than live freely in including but not limited to a member of the State Legisla-curtly and order, bringing about the throne.Secnd in line to the Dutch a society which tolerates such employment, upgrading, dome- turn since 1950. wholehappineSSpeople."and welfare for the The 1814 constitution of the n law. Lion or transfer; recruitment or General Khanh, aged 36, Netherlands contained a clause "Thoreau's words are appli- recruitment advertising; layoff $ is I1 years younger than Gem stating thatthekingorqueen cable to these persons: 'They or termination rates of payor Hos,e sea Duong van Minh whom he Blind Man must be a member of the Dutch are the lovers of law and order other forms of compensation; replaces, and like him he is Reformed Church, but this ar- who observe the law when the and selection for training, in. Needed For listed as a Buddhist. General ticle was eliminated shortly PRINCESS IRENE government breaks it' " eluding apprenticeship." This employment certificate 'Coffee Hours' Khanh and his colleague, Father Drinan called it "most also calls for the compliance o Maj. Gen. Do can Tri, were after adoption of the consti- Political Reformed party, said misleading" to say that civil contractors and subcontractors. Coffee hours are being organ- not in Saigon during the No- tation. The statement revealing the that the "news that a member disobedience is justified "only Loans on existing housing, ized In' many homa of the vember 1 coup but they gave conversion said that Princess of the House of Orange has as a last resort." Hess pointed out, are general- Greater Seattle area hy house- their support to it. We Sell and Service... abandoned the Reformation" Irene made the step "after long Father Drinan said lawyers ly made after the sale. But the wives in conjunction with a role- The generals who apparently and intensive deliberation" and would be received "with great VENETIAN BLINDS must "recognize the fact that FHA does have a direct influ- vision program on open hous- took the initiative in this coup out of "deep conviction." distress" by his party, demonstrations, boycotts, sit- ence in new construction and ing to be shown at 10:30 a.m. were the commanders of the Hat Parool, socialist daily ins and other forms of direct properties acquired by foreclos- Wednesday, Feb. 19, on KOMO- four army corps who are fight- VERTICAL BLINDS A secretary to Queen Juliana, newspaper here, complained action as yet unimagined will ares which are resold by the 'IV (Channel 4). ing most of the war in the WOVEN WOOD commenting on t h e action, of the earlier secrecy con- be here until integration of a FHA through local brokers. These coffee hours are be- countryside. The chief motive WOVEN ALUMINUM said: eerning the Princess' joining significant nature has been Any FHA office may also re- ingh e ld for neighborhood for the latest coup seems to "The Queen and the Prince the Catholic Church, stating achieved." He said the legal ceive complaints, alleging dis- groups to watch the.program, have been to forestall possible LAMINATED SHADES of the Netherlands recognize that the conversion took place profession can be "enormously crimination in any property, sponsored by the Citizens Ad- maneuvers for a neutralist "so- the right of free choice for last summer, helpful to the nation" if it assisted by FHA. These corn- visory Committee on Open fuLton" which many think would PLISSE' SHADES their children and for that Te Tijd, national Catholic takes a sound approach to the plaints are thoroughly investi- Housing. Group diseussions with- only lead to Communist dom- ROMAN SHADES reason they fully respect this decision of their daughter daily, said in an editorial that legal and moral issues raised gated with an attempt to solve in the homes are planned after ination over South Vietnam. the Princess would consider by such direct action, the problems of both the corn- the telecast. A Vietnamese official AND JUST PLAIN WINDOW SHADES Irene." her new faith more a comple- plainant and alleged violator. The Rev. John D. Lynch, co- pointed out that the coup had J. Smallenbroeck, leader of Lion rather than a rupture with FHA's regulation are bel- chairman of the Seattle Con- came on the eve of President PHON g FOR ESTIMATES--NO OBLIGATION the Protestant Anti-Revolution- her past. Noting that Dutch Glt From Pope stered by the Washington State ferenee of Religion and. Race De Gaulle's press conference ary party, stated that "every- Catholics at the conclusion of Megiddo, Israel (NC) -- L a w against Discrimination and member of the Central concerning French recognition No Chorge for Pickup or Delivery one is free in matters of faith." Sundy Mass always sing a President Shneor Shazar of which gives citizens the right District Coordinating Commit- of the Chinese Communist But the acting leader of the hymn asking God's blessing for Israel presented January 7 to secure publicly-assisted hous- tee for Civil Rights, asksCatho- government. MA 2 8290 Christian Historical Union, Miss the Queen, it said: "We hope to Dr. Haim Sheba, director ing without discrimination, lie women who are. willing to Many Vietnamese believe that Ill C. W. I. Wittewaall van Steer- that the Christians of the Neth- of the state hospital here, Attending the conference at become hostesses to submit French recognition of Peking wegen, commented: "I am erlands will join in common the electrocardiograph unit the FHA's Seattle Office on the their names as soon as possible is part of a French plan for a METROPOLITANWINDOW BLIND :CO. shocked by this news." And prayer for the personal salve- he received as a gift from seventh floor of the Norton to the coffee hours committee at "neutralized" South Vietnam. C. N. van Dis, leader of the Lion of all the members of our Pope Paul VI. Building was Arthur J. Brad- the.YCA, 5th d Senee.a Such neutralism, they feel, 1112 PlgE STREET conservative, Calvinist-oriented royal house." ford, intergroup relations ad- St. would leave them defenseless when two or three tanks rumbled down the deserted street outside. The next day he learned they were on their way to confirm what he had been wrlting--that many Viet- namese fear the neutralist formula. Maj. Gem Khanh and his col- leagues do not intend wholesale changes of local authorities such as took place after the Novem- ber 1 coup, sometimes with un- fortunate results, nor do they intend to halt operations or projects now in progress, ac- cording to well informed sources.